Notes on al-Usul al-Thalatha

Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

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Bilad Al Sham Media

Presents: (3)

“Notes on al-Usul al-Thalatha”

Of Sheikhul Islam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Rahimahullah

First chapter:

The first introduction

21 September 2013

 

Compiled by: Abu Dujanah Al Maaldifi

Every Muslim has the right to use our publications with two conditions. Firstly, no alteration should be brought to the document. Secondly, it should be referred back to Bilad al Sham Media

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Bismillahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem

 Introduction

This is a brief compilation of notes on al-Usul al-Thalatha (the three fundamental principles) of Sheikh al-Islam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Rahimahullah.

The manner of this document would be mostly in short points which are easy to understand and will be published chapter by chapter on Bilad Al Sham Media Insha Allah.

The Risalat of Sheikhul Islam consists of five parts. They are three introductions, a main text, and an ending.

The three introductions:

1)      “اعلم رحمك الله أنه يجب علينا تعلم أربع مسائل”

Meaning: “Know – May Allah have mercy on you – that it is Wajib upon us to learn four matters……”

2)      “اعلم رحمك الله أنه يجب على كل مسلم ومسلمة تعلم هذه المسائل الثلاث والعمل بهن”

Meaning: “Know – May Allah have mercy on you – that it is Wajib upon every Muslim man and woman to learn the following three matters and act upon them…….”

3)      “اعلم أرشدك الله لطاعته أن الحنيفية ملة إبراهيم أن تعبد الله وحده مخلصا له الدين”

Meaning: “Know – May Allah guide you to His obedience – that al-Haneefiyya Millat Ibrahim is to worship Allah alone, making the worship sincere to him.……”

The main text is the Usul al Thalatha which starts with “فإذا قيل لك مالأصول الثلاثة” Meaning: “If it is said to you ‘what is the Usul al Thalatha (three matters)……’” And these three matters are Maurifat [1] of the Rabb, His Religion and His Prophet Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wasallam.

And the ending is about resurrection, Kufr bil-taghut, the heads of the Tawaghit. [2]

 

Text of the treatise: (The First Introduction)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

اعلم رحمك الله أنه يجب علينا تعلم أربع مسائل:

الأولى: العلم وهو معرفة الله ومعرفة نبيه ومعرفة دين الإسلام بالأدلة. الثانية: العمل به. الثالثة: الدعوة إليه. الرابعة: الصبر على الأذى فيه. والدليل قوله تعالى: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم * وَالْعَصْرِ * إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ * إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ *

قال الشافعي رحمه الله تعالى: لو ما أنزل الله حجة على خلقه إلا هذه سورة لكفتهم

وقال البخاري رحمه الله تعالى: بابٌ: العلم قبل القول والعمل. والدليل قوله تعالى: “فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ” فبدأ بالعلم قبل القول والعمل

Translation:

In the name of Allah al-Rahman al-Raheem

Know – may Allah have mercy on you – that it is Wajib upon us to learn four matters:

1)      Al-Ilm (Knowledge) which is Maurifat of Allah, Maurifat of His Prophet and Deen al-Islam based upon evidences.

2)      Al-Amal (action) upon it.

3)      Al-Dawah (preaching) it.

4)      Al-Sabr (patience) in face of the difficulties faced due to it.

The evidence is the words of Allah:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم * وَالْعَصْرِ * إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ * إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

Meaning: “By time, Indeed, mankind is in loss, Except for those who have Iman (believed) and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.”

Al-Shafi’ee Rahimahullah said: “Had Allah not send down any Hujjah upon the creation except this Surah, it would have sufficed them.”

And al-Bukhari Rahimahullah said: “Chapter: al-Ilm (knowledge) precedes words and actions.” And the evidence is the statement of Allah:

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ

Meaning: “So know,[3] [O Muhammad], that there is no deity except Allah and ask forgiveness for your sin”

So He started with knowledge before words and actions. [End of the first introduction]

Commentary:

The Author Rahimahullah mentioned the Basmalat: “بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم” at the start of his Risalat. The translation is: “In the name of Allah, al-Rahman al-Raheem.”

The evidence for mentioning the Basmalat at the beginning of letters, speeches etc is:

1)      The Quran begins with the Basmalat, so in this is a following of the Quran.

2)      The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam began his letters with the Basmalat [4]and also Prophet Sulayman alayhissalam began his letter to the Queen of Saba’a with Basmalat. Read:

إِنَّهُ مِن سُلَيْمَانَ وَإِنَّهُ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Meaning: “Indeed, it is from Solomon, and indeed, it reads: ‘In the name of Allah, al-Rahman al-Raheem”

As for the narrations such as:

“كل أمر ذي بال لا يبدأ فيه ببسم الله فهو أبتر”

Meaning: “Every important matter that does not start with Bismillah, then it is cut off (from Barakat)”

Then most of the scholars have graded them Da’eef. Among them Sheikh al-Albani Rahimahullah and al-Hafiz Sulayman al Alwan (May Allah keep him safe from the Saudi Tawaghit).

However others saw it fit to use these Ahadith in their books and among them Imam al-Nawawi and others.

These Ahadith being Da’eef mean that the legislation of mentioning the Basmalat at the start of letters, speeches etc are proven from the Sunnah Fiuliyya and not Qawliyya. (It is proven from the actions of the Prophet, and not from a statement of him commanding them.)

Also it is legislated to praise Allah or recite a portion of the Quran at the start of letters or speeches. This is proven from what was narrated Sahih by Imam Muslim that the Prophet Sallallahu alayhi wasallam that if he delivered a Khutba, would praise Allah. And it was narrated likewise in Sahih Muslim that the Prophet delivered a Khutba to a group who came from Mudirr and he started the address with some Aayaat of the Quran. So one may recite some Aayaat of the Quran at the beginning or he may praise Allah at the beginning of his letter or speech etc.

As for “بسم الله”Bismillah, it means ‘in the name of Allah.’ The intended meaning is ‘In the name of Allah, I write…’

In the Arabic language this means that it is only in His name this is written, and not in the name of anyone else alongside Him. And by this, Barakat and Help are sought from Allah for the action.

As for “الرحمن الرحيم” al-Rahman al-Raheem, then it is derived from the word “رحمة” Rahmat meaning Mercy. So what is the difference between the two?

Al-Rahman is the one who is characterized with the Sifat of vast Rahmat which encompasses all things. No one else can be described or called by this name. Eg: It is not allowed to say “Zaid is Rahman”

Al Raheem is the One whose Rahmat reaches whom He wills from His slaves. So the first one has to do with Sifat and the second one is to do with His Fi’ul (actions). This name can be used for other than Allah. Eg: It is allowed to be said “Zaid is Raheem”. And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam was described with this name.

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Meaning: “There has certainly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers is kind and Raheem.

End of the notes on Basmalat. Now we begin with the word “اعْلَم” Meaning: “Know!” This is a command to seek knowledge and this shows the importance the Sheikh gave to knowledge. The Quran was also first revealed “اقرأ” Meaning: “Read” which is also an inciting and urging to attain knowledge and learn. Similarly Allah ordered “فاعلم” Meaning: “so know!” And this was revealed in Medina which means the command here is to attain knowledge after knowledge.

The Sheikh is addressing the student of knowledge, but that which is coming in the Risalat contains that which are fard on every single Mukallaf [5]even the Jinn, as Allah said:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

Meaning: “And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.”

Even the disbelievers as they would be questioned about:

مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ * قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ * وَلَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِينَ

Meaning: “[And asking them], “What put you into Saqar?” They will say, “We were not of those who prayed, nor did we used to feed the poor.”

 And:

وَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ * الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُم بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ

Meaning: “And woe to the Mushrikun- Those who do not give zakat, and in the Hereafter they are disbelievers.”

So the disbelievers would be questioned about the Usul[6] of the Deen as well as the Furu’[7]. [8] Hence they would be punished for being disbelievers and they would be punished for leaving the other obligations which are not valid except with Islam, such as praying, fasting, zakat etc.

Among the other benefits of the word is that it grabs the attention of the reader and makes him alert and ready to understand what the Sheikh is going to give him of knowledge. In addition to that, it directs attention to the importance of what is coming ahead. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam himself used the same techniques while teaching. For example he said to Ibn Abbas:

“واعلم أن الأمة لو اجتمعت على أن ينفعوك بشيء لم ينفعوك إلا بشيئ قد كتبه الله لك”

Meaning: “And know that even if the entire nation gathers to benefit you with something, they will not benefit you with anything except that which Allah has already written for you.” Sunan al-Tirimizi and graded Sahih by al-Albani.

And also his statement:

“ألا أنبئكم بأكبر الكبائر؟”

Meaning: “Shall I not inform you of the biggest of the Kabair?”

Here there is the grabbing of attention from the listener. And there are other examples to this.

So in summary, the word “اعلم” “Know!” is a command to seek knowledge and the benefits it achieves is that it grabs the attention of the reader and makes him attentive to the knowledge which is coming ahead and also it hints to the importance of the content of the text.

So now we begin with the word “رحمك الله” Meaning: “Allah had mercy on you” as a khabar.[9] But the intended meaning is a form of Dua: “May Allah have mercy on you.” And this is common in the Arabic language and there is nothing wrong with it.

This is a dua from the teacher to the student and this is how the basis of the relation between the two is supposed to be. And bringing the word Rahmat (Mercy) next to the command to seek knowledge shows the deep understanding of the Sheikh that the basis of the knowledge is Rahmat and its result is Rahmat in this world and its goal is Rahmat in the Hereafter. And the Sheikh understood that this knowledge cannot be taught except with Rahmat and Lutf [10]between the teacher and the student. And the evidence for this is:

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ ۖ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ

Meaning: “So by mercy from Allah, [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have broken away from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter.”

And also:

وَلَا تُجَادِلُوا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ إِلَّا بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْهُمْ

Meaning: “And do not argue with the People of the Scripture except in a way that is better, except for those who do wrong among them”

 This is regarding those who seek the truth and not turn away from it. As for those who show pride and do not want the truth, they are dealt with in the way they deserve. The Ayah makes this clear and the scholars have spoken about this in their books.

“رحمك الله” “May Allah have mercy on you” here means May Allah forgive you for your past sins and safeguard you from sins and support you in goodness in the future. When the word Rahmat and Maghfirat are mentioned in the same context, Rahmat means safeguarding from sins and support and goodness in the future and Maghfirat means forgiveness for the past sins. But when Rahmat alone is mentioned (as in this case) it includes that which was done in the past and also being safeguarded from sins in the future.

Now we begin with the words of the Sheikh: “أنه يجب علينا تعلم أربع مسائل” Meaning: “It is Wajib upon us to learn four matters.”

What is the meaning of Wajib? Many of the scholars said: “Wajib is that which no one is excused to leave. And according to the Usulis, Wajib is that which its doer will be rewarded and the one who leaves it will be punished.” Sheikh Ali al Khudhayr (May Allah free him from the Saudi prison) said in his sharh of the book that saying “the one who leaves it is deserving of being punished” is better than saying “the one who leaves it will be punished.” The reason according to the Sheikh is that according to Ahlus-sunnah, the one who sins is under the Mashee’ah [11] of Allah. If He wills, He will punish him, if He wills, He will forgive him. The Sheikh further explains that the threat and deserving of punishment is thaabith (established/proven) upon him, but the action of punishment is under the Mashee’ah. And the Sheikh excludes from this, Shirk, whose doer must repent inorder to be forgiven.

And know that from Wajib there is that which is a Rukn. This is a Wajib within or inside the essence of the worship. Such as Sujud in prayer. The prayer is not valid except with Sujud and Sujud is within the prayer.
And from Wajib there is that which is a Shar’th. This is outside the essence of the worship. For example Taharat (purification) for Prayer. The prayer is not valid except with it and it is outside the prayer.

The Wajib mentioned here by Sheikhul Islam means Rukn and the Deen of a person is not valid except with these matters. (The Sheikh does not intend here the Wajib whose doer who does it with Imtithal is rewarded and the one who leaves it is deserving of being punished.)[12]

Here we end with the notes on “يجب”

The Sheikh’s words “يجب علينا”Meaning: “Wajib upon us” means that this Wajib is Ayni. Meaning it is Wajib upon every single Mukallaf. So it is clear that Sheikhul Islam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab is saying that the four upcoming matters are Wajib upon us and no one is excused be he a free man or a slave, a man or a woman. Even the Jinn and disbelievers are addressed in the Usul and Furu’ of the Shariah as was made clear before. No Mukallaf is excused. So what is coming in the book “al Usul al Thalatha” is issues which are obligatory on every single Mukallaf and for this reason, effort should be put into studying these important matters.

So in summary, the Sheikh has said that there are four matters which are Wajib upon every single Mukallaf to learn about. And that this knowledge is Fard Ayn and not a Fard Kifayah. [13]

Here we start with the first Wajib from the four Wajibaat [14] which is:

“العلم وهو معرفة الله ومعرفة نبيه ومعرفة دين الإسلام بالأدلة”

Meaning: “Knowledge. Which is the Maurifat of Allah, the Maurifat of His Messenger and the Islamic Religion based upon evidences.”

The word “العلم” meaning: “knowledge” means Shar’ee knowledge. Keep this in mind, when the word knowledge is mentioned in the Quran or Hadith, it means Shar’ee knowledge unless there is another evidence which suggests another form of knowledge.[15] So from knowledge there is the Shar’ee knowledge and the Qayr Shar’ee knowledge which is everything other than the Shar’ee knowledge. Keep this in mind in a time as ours where the ikhwanis and modernists have taken the Shar’ee texts which praise Islamic knowledge and used them on worldly knowledge itlaq.

And know that every knowledge other than the Shar’ee knowledge is not praiseworthy. This is clear from the Sahih Hadith narrated in Sahih al-Bukhari where the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam found the people artificially inseminating the crops and he said (translated) “there is no need for you to do this” and the crops failed. So he said (translated) “You know more about your worldly affairs”.[16] If the worldly knowledge was praiseworthy, he would have known it better.

So the worldly knowledge is Mubah. [17] The one who does not acquire it will not be questioned about it. But if he gains it for the sake of Allah, to benefit Islam and the Muslims, such as knowledge of weaponry for Jihad, knowledge of Medicine etc, then he will be rewarded. Infact, this is Fard Kifayah according to the scholars.

As for the Shar’ee knowledge, there is that which is Fard Ayn and that which is Fard Kifayah. The knowledge that which is Fard Ayn is the knowledge of everything which Allah commanded him and forbidden him from. This form of knowledge is Wajib upon every person as the scholars have stated.

Because “الوسائل لها أحكام المقاصد” meaning: “the means have the same hukm as the objective.” Meaning that if such and such is Wajib, the means to it are also Wajib. Since a Wajib is not attained except with knowledge of the matter, then attaining the knowledge of this matter becomes Wajib. Example: Tawhid, prayer etc. So it becomes Wajib to seek knowledge of the Tawhid, prayer, its conditions, nullifiers etc.

The Shar’ee knowledge that which is Fard Kifayah is those other than the above. Such as the knowledge of the chains of narration in Hadith etc. This knowledge is Wajib, but it is not Wajib upon every Mukallaf to learn about. As long as a group establishes the obligation, the burden falls from the rest.

As for the virtues of seeking knowledge, then know that it is from the highest forms of worship for the one who seeks by it the face of Allah. And enough for evidence is the Ayat of Quran which mentions the people of knowledge right after mentioning Allah and His Angels.

شَهِدَ اللَّهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ

Meaning: “Allah bears witness that there is no deity except Him, and [so do] the angels and those of knowledge”

Had there been any people greater, they would have been mentioned there. And Allah said:

يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ

Meaning: “Allah will raise those who have believed among you and those who were given knowledge, by degrees.”

And the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:

العلماء ورثة الأنبياء

Meaning: “The Scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets” Abu Daud, Tirimizi, Ibn Majah and others. And Albani graded it Sahih

And:

من سلك طريقا يلتمس فيه علما سهل الله له طريقا إلى الجنة

Meaning: “He who traverses a path in search of knowledge, Allah will make easy for him a path to Paradise”

Now we begin with “معرفة الله” Meaning: “Maurifat of Allah” literarily meaning: “awareness of Allah”. Some of the scholars have said that Ilm is the same as Maurifat but the others have said that Maurifat is deeper than Ilm. So everyone who has Maurifat has achieved Ilm, but not everyone who achieved Ilm has achieved Maurifat.

Know that Allah is known in two ways. That is by reflecting upon his Shar’ee Aayaat from the Quran and Sunnah. And the second way is by reflecting upon his Kawnee Aayaat, which are his creations. And by this, the slave understands and realizes that Allah is the Rabb (Lord) of the Heavens and the Earth and that He maintains them and bestows on them Rizq.  And this leads the slave to realize that He alone should be worshiped with none besides Him as a partner and that He is the Hakim and the Shaari’u and none associates with Him in legislation. And that His Shariah is the most complete of legislations and that His Shariah is all benefits and there is no harm or unjustness in it. And all other legislations are weak and shortcoming. And coming to this realization is a great blessing which Allah bestows upon whom He wills from His slaves, and no one knows its sweetness except those who tasted it. So let the slave of Allah isolate himself from the people for a portion of his day and spend it in the remembrance of His Lord the Most High. Let him ponder upon His Names and Characteristics which are proven from the Quran and Sahih Sunnah. And let him ponder upon His Oneness in being worshipped and His greatness and mightiness. And know that the Aql (mind) follows the Naql (narrated texts of the Shariah) and not the other way round. So know, none of these issues of Aqida should be based upon the Aql. But rather it should be based upon the Naql and the Aql follows it.

As for the words “معرفة نبيه” Meaning: “Maurifat of His Prophet”.

He is Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf and is the intermediate between us and Allah in Tabligh (conveying) of the Risalat. But He is never an intermediate between us and Allah in worship or seeking help. It is Wajib upon every Mukallaf to learn about him and His life.

It is Wajib upon us to accept the Shariah He brought from Allah and associate none with him in following him. And Allah has negated Iman from the one who does not turn to him in legislation obediently.

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

Meaning: “But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission.”

So let every Muslim learn about the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam and follow him and not follow the opinion of anyone else who contradicts him whoever he may be.

And know that the one who mocks the Prophet is to be killed according to the Quran and Sahih Sunnah. And know that this punishment is the only way of deterring such people from mocking him as Allah has made clear for us:

وَإِن نَّكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ فَقَاتِلُوا أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ ۙ إِنَّهُمْ لَا أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنتَهُونَ

Meaning: “And if they break their oaths after their treaty and criticize your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief, for indeed, their oaths are nothing to them; [fight them that] they might stop from doing such things.”

So the way to deal with the people who mock him through cartoons, movies, blogs etc, the governments and police forces that protect such people, the parliament members who pass laws in their defense and in allowing such “expressions” and other such people is to fight them and slaughter them with a terrible slaughter. And the ayah makes clear that such people have no covenant of security even if they had it once before. And the ayah also proves that such people are Imams of Kufr. If it is said that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam did not kill certain people who mocked him, then the scholars have replied that the authority to forgive is only for the Prophet himself. And after his death, none can claim this authority for himself so the punishment of death remains upon the mocker. And it was narrated from Abu Bakr radiallahu anhu that he said:”حد الأنبياء ليس يشبه الحدود” Meaning: “The hadd of the Prophets does not resemble the other hudud.” And the scholars say that this means that the one who mocks the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam cannot be forgiven. Whoever wishes more details on this matter shall refer to the incident of Ka’b bin al-Ashraf and the book “al-Sarim al Maslul alaa Shaathim al-Rasul” of Sheikhul Islam Ibn Thaymiyya Rahimahullah.

As for the words “معرفة دين الإسلام بالأدلة” they mean: “Maurifat of the Deen al-Islam based upon the evidences”

Islam in its general meaning means submission and obedience to Allah alone and disavowal from Shirk and its people. In this sense, all the Prophets and those who believed them were Muslims upon Islam.

Islam in its specific meaning means the Shariah which Allah sent down to the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Meaning the people of other religions, if they did not believe in the last messenger, they become disbelievers. So whoever who does not submit to the Shariah of Allah is a Kafir disbeliever. Included among them are the Jews and Christians, Buddhists, Democrats, Liberalists, Communists and anyone who does not submit to the Shariah of Islam alone.

The word “بالأدلة” meaning: “based upon evidences.” Evidence is that what leads to the objective.

The question which arises here is that does the Iman of the Jahil (ignorant) blind follower in Aqida count as Sahih or not? Or does it necessarily require that he know the Daleel. There is a difference of opinion amongst the scholars regarding this. The correct seems to be that it is Sahih as Allah said:

فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Meaning: “So ask the people of knowledge if you do not know.”

And the context of the Ayah is about proving the Prophethood of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. So this is from the Usul of the Deen (meaning Aqida) and this shows that blind following is permissible for the Jahil who does not know. This is the opinion of Ibn Qudamah, an-Nawawi, al-Uthaymin and many others. (May Allah have mercy on them all.) [18]

Another benefit the Ayat proves is that there is only a Scholar and a Jahil. There exists no third person. The Jahil is to ask the scholar.

Here we end with the first obligation and begin with the second obligation “العمل به” Meaning: “acting upon it”

So the second obligation is acting upon the Ilm which was the first obligation. The scholars have categorized acting upon Ilm to categories. Among them:

1)      Wajib. This is acting upon that which is Wajib. Such as Tawhid.

2)      Mustahabb. This is acting upon that which is Mustahabb.

3)      Makruh. This is acting upon that which is Makruh.

4)      Haram. This is acting upon that which is Haram. Such as Shirk, Music.

Is leaving a Haram act considered a good Amal (action)? If it was left for the sake of Allah, example he stays away from the means which lead to zina. This is considered a good Amal. But if he leaves it due to inability, this is not regarded as a good Amal. So it depends on the intention. If the Haram was left with a good intention, this is regarded as a good Amal. As Allah said:

اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Meaning: “fear Allah and give up what remains of Riba (interest), if you should be believers.” [19]

As for the benefits achieved by acting upon Ilm, then know that this increases the person in Ilm and guidance and this is from the greatest of achievements. Allah said:

لَئِن شَكَرْتُمْ لَأَزِيدَنَّكُمْ

Meaning: “If you are grateful, I will surely increase you [in favor]”

 Doing what Allah ordered and leaving what he forbade is the way of showing gratitude to him. And acting upon knowledge is a command from Allah and abandoning acting upon knowledge was forbidden from Him. So the one who acts upon his Knowledge has showed gratitude to Allah for the knowledge and the Ayah proves that this means Allah will increase him in knowledge. And Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا زَادَهُمْ هُدًى وَآتَاهُمْ تَقْوَاهُمْ

Meaning: “And those who are guided – He increases them in guidance and gives them their righteousness.”

So this proves that the one who acts upon his knowledge will be increased in knowledge and guidance. And Allah said:

وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا

Meaning: “And those who strive hard in our cause, we will surely guide them to our paths”

This also proves that the one who acts upon what he knows of Ilm, Allah will teach him what he did not know.

O dear reader, know that abandoning acting upon knowledge is a Hujjah against you and you will be amongst those deserving of punishment even before the idol worshipers as is known from Hadith.

This is because the objective of knowledge is to act upon it. Without action, knowledge is like a tree without fruits as the Salaf said. And for this reason, the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam sought refuge from knowledge which is not acted upon. He used to seek refuge saying:

“اللهم إني أعوذ بك من علم لا ينفع”

Meaning: “O Allah, verily I seek refuge from you from knowledge which does not benefit.”

And know that action without knowledge is harm and exhaustion upon the doer as it will not be accepted. The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said:

“من عمل عملا ليس عليه أمرنا فهو رد”

Meaning: “Whoever does an action which is not according to our command, will have it rejected.”

It is impossible to do anything according to the Shariah unless the doer has knowledge of the Shariah. So action without knowledge will have the action rejected.

And know O reader that knowledge without action is the path of the Jews whom Allah described in His statement:

غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ

Meaning: “not of those who have earned [Your] anger”

And action without knowledge is the path of the Christians whom Allah described in His statement:

وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

Meaning: “nor of those who are astray.”

And we recite this everyday in our Salaat. So pay attention, the evil scholars of this Ummah who have abandoned acting upon their knowledge such as in regards to Kufr in Taghut and Jihad have a resemblance to the Jews. And the ignorant worshippers of this Ummah, who do not have an idea of what the Sunnah is, yet claim to be upon it, have a resemblance to the Christians. So upon the Muwahhid on the Sunnah is to learn the Deen of Allah and act upon the knowledge which Allah bestowed on him. He should never forget that action should be upon the Sunnah and he should not interpret the Deen solely upon Ghayra [20] which many have fallen into.

Such as the Khawarij who based their Deen on Ghayra and not on knowledge. So they did not understand the correct path.

As for those who have no Ghayra, yet have knowledge, then they are the evil scholars who fear the Taghut more than Allah and are ready to sell the covenant of Allah for a lowly price.

So stick to issues of both the heart and Fiqh, never take one and leave the other for they are like a handle and petrol of a vehicle. Without the handle, the vehicle may run on petrol but it has no control of the direction and is likely to crash into something. Such are the Khawarij and other deviants who loved the Deen yet had no knowledge of the Prophetic Sunnah and His methodology. So they walked without any guidance. As for the vehicle without petrol, but with the handle, it has a grip on the direction but it will not run. Such are the evil scholars who abandoned acting upon their knowledge and other deviants from the hypocrites and Zanadiqa. And this second group is worse than the first as they had knowledge but did not act upon it. [21]

So by Allah, Allah, dear readers, attain knowledge of the Shariah and act accordingly. Learn the Tawhid of Allah and implement in your lives. Learn the acts of worship, from them Jihad and implement it in your lives in these wicked days and time we live. So that you be from the strangest of strangers who were promised glad tidings from the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Let go off partisanship to certain scholars and if you should blind follow, follow the Companions and those who followed them in goodness.

The third Wajib which the Sheikh Rahimahullah mentioned is “الدعوة إليه” which means “calling others to it” or “preaching it.”

It means calling people to the knowledge and action which was mentioned before.

This Dawah should be based upon sure knowledge as Allah said:

قُلْ هَٰذِهِ سَبِيلِي أَدْعُو إِلَى اللَّهِ ۚ عَلَىٰ بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِي

Meaning: “Say, “This is my way; I invite to Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me. (also must invite to Allah.)”

The question which arises here is whether Dawah is obligatory only on the scholars or is it obligatory on every single person?

It is obligatory on every single person according to his knowledge. So the scholar has a greater obligation in regards to Dawah than the ordinary man. But the ordinary man also has the obligation of Dawah within his limits. And the text of Surah al-Asr which was mentioned before makes this clear. And also the statement of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam:

بلغوا عني ولو آية

Meaning: “Convey from me, even if one Ayat.” Bukhari and Tirmizi

But this should strictly be kept within his limits. He should never ever speak of that which he has no knowledge of as it is from the greatest of forbiddances which is never allowed. Allah said:

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Meaning: “Say, “The things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are immoralities- what is apparent of them and what is concealed – and sin, and oppression without right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know.“”

Dawah can be given through your speech and also through your actions. Such as you show a certain good deed inorder to teach others and guide them to it. Is this considered showing off?

It is not considered showing off as the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said on the Minbar:

فعلت هذا لتأتموا بي

Meaning: “I did this so that you can follow me” Bukhari and Muslim [22]

Another question in this chapter is whether a person can do Dawah regarding things which he does not act upon or must he first act upon it inorder to call people to it?

There is a difference of opinion regarding this. Some of the scholars say he must not give Dawah to that which he does not act upon himself. And they base this on the statement of Allah:

أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ

Meaning: “Do you order righteousness to the people and forget yourselves”

And there are Hadiths which mention punishment for the person who gave Dawah but did not act accordingly himself.

The other scholars reply that if people were to refrain from Dawah until acting upon it themselves, they would never give Dawah because no one can perfectly obey the commandments and refrain from the forbiddances. As for the Aayaat and Ahadith which were referred to above, then these scholars say that they censure the abandoning of action by the caller but not his action of calling others and giving them Dawah. So what needs to be kept in mind is that acting upon it and calling others to it are two obligations. If one abandons acting and also Dawah, he has abandoned two obligations and is more deserving of punishment than the one who gives Dawah without acting. What the Aayaat and Ahadith mention are censuring of abandoning of actions and not a censuring of him giving Dawah according to the opinion of the second group of scholars.

So every single Muslim must make Dawah to the Deen of Allah. He must call others to Tawhid, the Sunnah. And in these days of widespread ignorance, let him learn Tawhid and Shirk, Iman and Kufr, Sunnah and Bid’a and implement them in his life and call others to it. Let him start with himself and his family and those around him. And he should pay more attention to the contemporary forms of Shirk which are spreading such as the Shirk of legislating and Democracy which a large part of the Ummah has become ignorant off. Let him learn these matters from trustworthy scholars such as Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Abu Qatada al-Filistini, Ali al Khudhayr and others besides them from the people of Sunnah. And after learning and implementing them, let him explain these issues to others and call them to stay away from these forms of Shirk and Kufr and its deviant people.

Here we end with the comments on “الدعوة إليه” meaning “Dawah to it.”

And now we begin with the fourth obligation “الصبر على الأذي فيه” meaning: “patience upon the harms faced by it.”

Whoever seeks knowledge, acts by it and calls people to it, will be faced with trials and tests which he must be patient infront of. He is faced with tests in lack of wealth in seeking knowledge and tiring in acting and the harm of people when he calls others to it.

The caller to Allah and His Deen stand between the people and their desires so it is natural for them to hate him and harm him. And this we understand from what Allah revealed regarding what Luqman alayhissalam said to his son:

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

Meaning: “O my son, establish prayer, enjoin what is right, forbid what is wrong, and be patient over what befalls you. Indeed, these are some of the important commandments (ordered by Allah with no exemption.).”

So upon the Muslim is to remain patient upon what befalls him and his reward is with Allah without account.

إِنَّمَا يُوَفَّى الصَّابِرُونَ أَجْرَهُم بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

Meaning: “Only those who are patient will be given their reward full, without account.”

Here we end with the four obligatory matters and then Sheikhul Islam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab mentions the evidence for the four matters.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم * وَالْعَصْرِ * إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ * إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ *

Meaning: “By time, Indeed, mankind is in loss, Except for those who have Iman (believed) and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.”

Here in this Ayat it is made clear that all of mankind, all of them are in loss, except for those who have the four qualities. So it is clear that attaining these four qualities is a Fard Ayn on every single Mukallaf and none is exempted.

“Except for those who have Iman (believed)” is proof for Ilm (knowledge) because it is impossible to have Iman in something which he has no knowledge off.

“and done righteous deeds” is proof for action upon the knowledge.

“and advised each other to truth” is proof for Dawah.

“and advised each other to patience” is proof for patience infront of the difficulties faced.

So this Surah contains proof for the obligation of the four matters mentioned by the Sheikh as all of mankind is in loss except those who have these four qualities. And this proves the obligation of these four matters.

And then the Sheikh mentions the words of Imam al-Shafi’ee Rahimahullah.

“لو ما أنزل الله حجة على خلقه إلا هذه السورة لكفتهم”

Meaning: “Had Allah not send down any Hujjah upon the creation except this Surah, it would have sufficed them.”

He is Muhammad bin Idris al-Shafi’ee and is an Imam of one of the four famous Mazhabs.

His words mean that this Surah summarizes the correct Manhaj inorder to be saved from the Fire and entered to Paradise, not that this Surah is enough for the entire Shariah.

And then the Sheikh mentions the words of Imam al-Bukhari Rahimahullah.

بابٌ: العلم قبل القول والعمل. والدليل قوله تعالى: “فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ” فبدأ بالعلم قبل القول والعمل

Meaning: “Chapter: al-Ilm (knowledge) precedes words and actions.” And the evidence is the statement of Allah:

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ

Meaning: “So know, [O Muhammad], that there is no deity except Allah and ask forgiveness for your sin”

So He started with knowledge before words and actions.

He is al-Imam Muhammad bin Ismail al Bukhari, the author of Sahih al-Jami’[23] and other beneficial books.

The point here is that action should be based upon knowledge, else it would be exhaustion and harm upon the doer.

This is the end of the commentary on the first introduction of al-Usul al-Thalatha of Sheikhul Islam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Rahimahullah.

وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم

 


[1] Literal translation of Maurifat is awareness

[2] Tawaghit: Plural of Taghut

[3] This is the Shahid here. The command in the ayah “فاعلم” is to seek Ilm (knowledge.) (Eng: “know!”)

[4] Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim

[5] Mukallaf is the Baligh and Aaqil (Mature and sane) (see Usul min Ilmil Usul of Sheikh Uthaymin Rahimahullah)

[6] The Usul are the fundamentals which others are based upon.

[7] The Furu’ are the secondary matters which are based upon the primary fundamental matters (Usul).

[8] If the Usul are the roots of a tree, the Furu’ are the branches.

[9] Khabar means news.

[10] Lutf means softness and lightness.

[11] Mashee’ah of Allah means the will of Allah. If He wills He will punish them, if He wills He will forgive them. So the issue is under His will.

[12] Refer this to Sheikh Ali al Khudhayr’s Sharh of the book.

[13] Fard Ayn means those obligations which it is obligated upon every single Mukallaf to carry out. Fard Kifayah means those obligations whose obligation drops when a group carries it out. So the other group is relieved off sin. But if the required amount does not carry it out, then everyone turn out sinful.

[14] Wajibaat is the plural of Wajib.

[15] This has been stated by various scholars.

[16] Refer this to Kitabul Ilm of Sheikh Ibn Uthaymin Rahimahullah

[17] Mubah means those acts which are not commanded, nor forbidden. Such acts which the Shariah is silent about are forgiven and Mubah.

[18] Refer to Sheikh Ali al Khudhayr’s sharh of the book and Sheikh al-Uthaymin’s Usul min Ilm al-Usul.

[19] Refer to Sheikh Ali al Khudhayr’s sharh of the book.

[20] This is a natural protective instinct. Such as anger when your Deen is mocked at.

[21] This was stated by numerous scholars.

[22] Refer to Sheikh Ali al Khudhayr’s sharh of the book

[23] Famous as Sahih al-Bukhari

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